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Author Guidelines

Research articles:

All portions of the manuscript must be double-spaced and all pages numbered starting from the title page.

The Title should be a brief phrase describing the contents of the paper. The Title Page should include the author’s full names and affiliations, the name of the corresponding author along with phone, fax and E-mail information. Current author addresses should appear as a footnote.

The Abstract should be informative and be able to stand on its own. It should briefly present the topic, state the scope of the experiments, indicate significant data, and point out major findings and conclusions. It should be 100 to 200 words in length. Complete sentences, active verbs, and the third person should be used, and the abstract should be written in the past tense. Standard nomenclature should be used and abbreviations should be avoided. No literature should be cited.

Following the abstract, about 3 to 10 key words that will provide indexing references should be listed.

A list of non-standard Abbreviations should be added. In general, non-standard abbreviations should be used only when the full term is very long and used often. Each abbreviation should be spelled out and introduced in parentheses the first time it is used in the text. Only recommended SI units should be used. Authors should use the solidus presentation (mg/ml). Standard abbreviations (such as ATP and DNA) need not be defined.

The Introduction should provide a clear statement of the problem, the relevant literature on the subject, and the proposed approach or solution. It should be understandable to colleagues from a broad range of scientific disciplines.

Materials and methods should be complete enough to allow experiments to be reproduced. However, only truly new procedures should be described in detail; previously published procedures should be cited, and important modifications of published procedures should be mentioned briefly. Capitalize trade names and include the manufacturer's name and address. Subheadings should be used. Methods in general use need not be described in detail.

Results should be presented with clarity and precision. They should be written in the past tense when describing findings in the authors' experiments. Previously published findings should be written in the present tense. Results should be explained, but largely without referring to the literature. Discussion, speculation and detailed interpretation of data should not be included in the Results but should be put into the Discussion section.

The Discussion should interpret the findings in view of the results obtained in this and in past studies on this topic. State the conclusions in a few sentences at the end of the paper. The Results and Discussion sections can include subheadings, and when appropriate, both sections can be combined.

Acknowledgments of people, grants, funds, etc should be kept as brief as possible.

Tables should be kept to a minimum and designed to be as simple as possible. Tables are to be typed double-spaced throughout, including headings and footnotes. Each table should be on a separate page, numbered consecutively in Arabic numerals and supplied with a heading and a legend. Tables should be self-explanatory without reference to the text. The details of the methods used in the experiments should preferably be described in the legend instead of in the text. The same data should not be presented in both table and graph form or repeated in the text.

Figure legends should be typed in numerical order on a separate sheet. Graphics should be prepared using applications capable of generating high resolution GIF, TIFF, JPEG or Powerpoint before pasting in the Microsoft Word manuscript file. Tables should be prepared in Microsoft Word. Use Arabic numerals to designate figures and upper case letters for their parts (Figure 1). Begin each legend with a title and include sufficient description so that the figure is understandable without reading the text of the manuscript. Information given in legends should not be repeated in the text.

Letters to the Editor or Short Communications:

Short Communications are limited to a maximum of two figures and one table. They should present a complete study that is more limited in scope than is found in full-length papers. The items of manuscript preparation listed above apply to Short Communications with the following differences: (1) Abstracts are limited to 100 words; (2) instead of a separate Materials and Methods section, experimental procedures may be incorporated into Figure Legends and Table footnotes; (3) Results and Discussion should be combined into a single section.

Reviews and Essays:

There are no rules in this section. Please make sure that the subject of your article is covered within the scope of our journal and proceed to either submitting your work to our online submission system or contact one of the editors.


Reference citations should be written following the APA style i.e. cite the authors’ names and publication year in the text followed by a complete reference in the reference list. If there are more than two authors, only the first author’s name should be mentioned followed by et al. In the event that an author cited has had two or more works published during the same year, the reference, both in the text and in the reference list, should be identified by a lower case letter like ‘a’ and ‘b’ after the date to distinguish the works. Examples are given below.

In the text:
According to a previous study (Wang & Kollman 2000), free energy calculations…
In the reference list:
Wang W & Kollman PA 2000 Free Energy Calculations on Dimer Stability of the HIV Protease using Molecular Dynamics and a Continuum Solvent Model. J Mol Biol 303 567-582.

In the text:
According to a previous study (Southwood et al. 1998), the peptide binding specificity…
In the reference list:
Southwood S, Sidney J, Kondo A, Guercio M-Fd, Appella E, Hoffman S, Kubo RT, Chesnut RW, Gery HM & Sette A 1998 Several common HLA-DR types share largely overlapping peptide binding repertoires. J Immunol 160 3363-3373.

Proofs and Reprints:

Electronic proofs in the form of PDF file will be sent to the corresponding author. This PDF will be considered to be the final version of the manuscript.


Submission Preparation Checklist

As part of the submission process, authors are required to check off their submission's compliance with all of the following items, and submissions may be returned to authors that do not adhere to these guidelines.

  1. The submission has not been previously published, nor is it before another journal for consideration (or an explanation has been provided in Comments to the Editor).
  2. The submission file is in OpenOffice, Microsoft Word, RTF, or WordPerfect document file format.
  3. Where available, URLs for the references have been provided.
  4. The text is double-spaced; all pages are numbered starting from the title page; uses a 12-point Times New Roman font; employs italics, rather than underlining (except with URL addresses); and all illustrations, figures, and tables are placed within the text at the appropriate points, rather than at the end.

  5. The text adheres to the stylistic and bibliographic requirements outlined in the Author Guidelines, which is found in About the Journal.
  6. If submitting to a peer-reviewed section of the journal, the instructions in Ensuring a Blind Review have been followed.
  7. A "Conflict of Interest" section is included at the end of the submission, stating whether or not the author(s) have any conflicts of interest.
  8. An "Author Contributions" section is included at the end of the submission, stating how each author has contributed to the manuscript.

Copyright Notice

Articles will be published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License allowing unrestricted copying, distribution, transmission and adaptation of the work, under the condition that the original article is properly cited.

More specifically, authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:

  1. Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.

  2. Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.

  3. Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).


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